One translation is uneven to another. This statement is excellent when you consider the nature of translated content. In a different way will be translated a legal document, CV, letter to a friend and a film. Not only a form of translations is different, but also applied techniques. Then there are factors such as, e.g. cultural differences. Should everything be exactly translated or is it good to change certain elements so that the translation is closer to the audience? These doubts will always be actual. In today's article we will say a few words about the translation done for a specific audience.
- Domestication: the strategy that modifies all cultural dissimilarities, that the text gives the impression as if it originates from cultural circle of the recipient.
- Foreignisation: is complete opposition of "domestication". It is the approach, that from the very beginning informs the viewer that the work and its protagonists originate from another country.
It is worth mentioning, that each of these techniques completely differently affects the reception of translation. The choice of one of these strategies is dependent on two elements: on the target recipient and the type of material to translate (book, piece of music or a movie)
The most famous example of "domestication" is the edition of " Winnie the Pooh”, that has been translated twice into Polish language. "Winnie the Pooh" was translated for the first time by Irena Tuwim and a few years later was created second edition by Monika Adamczyk.
Translation of "Winnie the Pooh" Irena Tuwim:
- the name of "Winnie the Pooh" translated as "Kubuś Puchatek" (Jake the Pooh Bear)
- "Winnie" is actually the name for a woman or a man and there is no relationship with our Polish version – Jake
- Irena Tuwim she added, typically Polish words e.g. "Bagels" This is an example of "domestication".
Translation of Monika Adamczyk:
- "Winnie the Pooh" as "Fredzia PhiHi"
- all the elements associated with Polish culture were removed
- was very close to the original
This is the example of "foreignisation" that did not appeal to Polish children.